The Karankawa people comprised several nomadic groups, including the Kohanis, Cocos, Capoques, and Copanes. They primarily lived along what is now the Texas coast between Galveston Bay and Corpus Christi Bay. Contrary to Ray Miller's narration, the Karankawa settled on Padre Island after being driven from their native lands by Anglo settlers in the 1800s. From 1825 to 1827, a volunteer militia commissioned by Stephen F. Austin killed Karankawa found east of the Guadalupe River. Such attacks, along with European diseases, caused the indigenous population to swiftly dwindle. Ethnologist Albert Gatschet could find no living Karanawa by 1891.