Rose Marie "Rosemary" Kennedy, older sister to President John F. Kennedy, developed intellectual disabilities following a lack of oxygen at birth. Patriarch Joe Kennedy arranged for his 23-year-old daughter to receive a prefrontal lobotomy. The failed surgery left Rosemary permanently incapacitated. The Kennedys immediately institutionalized her, essentially excising her from the family and publicly denying her condition for 20 years. Rosemary's sister, Eunice Kenedy Shriver, established the Special Olympics in 1968.